The old lava flows have little water content or movement in comparison and are therefore more stable. These "soft" stories were particularly flexible and tended to collapse after prolonged shaking. About 6,000 buildings were flattened and quarter of a million people lost their homes.  The Museo Mural Diego Rivera on the north side of the park houses a mural by Diego Rivera which was originally housed in the huge Hotel Del Prado across the street. , Cuauhtémoc, which includes the historic downtown, suffered the most damage. It had its own cabaret, gourmet restaurant and a small but luxurious cinema with wide reclining armchairs. Students at the Universidad de las Américas in nearby Puebla reported feeling as if the cafeteria had been lifted and rocked back and forth, shattering windows and injuring some people but mostly causing panic. They build it on an artificial island in a shallow lake in Mexico's central altiplano. 561 bodies were found and 188 were never identified. Its piles were pulled entirely out of the ground.  However, the most commonly cited figures are around 10,000. Read more about the dangers of liquefaction in the next blog entry. A few notable examples are: the Torre Latinoamericana, one of the first buildings in Mexico City to do so, the Torre Ejecutiva Pemex, built before the 1985 earthquake, and the Torre Mayor, built in 2003. 7th Sep, 2015. On 11 October 1985, the President granted a seven-minute audience to the heads of a dozen popular movements, which turned into a 45-minute meeting where de la Madrid was handed a document outlining what would remain the movements' core demands: expropriation of all condemned buildings, followed by a "popular" and "democratic" reconstruction project which would include the active participation of the community movement. , However, the death toll was great enough to require the use of the IMSS baseball field as a morgue, using ice to conserve bodies for identification.  President Miguel de la Madrid ordered a news blackout and did not address the situation at all for 39 hours after the event. The hospital did not have an emergency plan but nonetheless, surviving hospital workers and neighbors quickly improvised, under the management of the hospital, setting up aid stations and scavenging supplies. A man watches a photograph exhibition marking the 30th anniversary of the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City, capital of Mexico, on Sept. 7, 2015. https://www.livescience.com/30791-deadly-1985-mexico-city-earthquake.html , To this day, the death toll has been in dispute. Ambassador to Mexico, John Gavin, observing the resulting damage of the earthquake. One nine-story building, for example, overturned.  The federal government's first public response was President de la Madrid's declaration of a period of mourning for three days starting from 20 September 1985.  The falling debris also killed street vendors who worked just outside the studio building.  Reconstruction of the studio building began in 1995 and ended in 2000. The other three 20-story buildings were closed because of damage, as well as the Metro entrance next door. 1,687 school buildings were damaged. Those that are six to fifteen stories tall also vibrate at the 2.5-second cycle, making them act like tuning forks in the event of an earthquake. , The Conalep SPP was a building located between the streets of Iturbide and Humboldt, in the Historic Center of Mexico City, which succumbed to the Richter-scale 8.1-degree earthquake on 19 September 1985. The government's response to the earthquake was widely criticized at various levels of Mexican society, being seen as both authoritarian and incompetent.  The fall left a huge piece of concrete blocking the road that leads to the Zócalo. He offered a commitment to build 48,000 housing units in one year if the groups would all sign a "Convenio de concertación democrática para la reconstrucción de vivienda" (Democratic agreement for the reconstruction of housing). , Despite warnings and predictions, in 2005, an estimated 32 million people live in the high-risk lakebed area. , All the buildings suffered damage but along with the collapsed Nuevo León building, buildings such as those called Veracruz, Coahuila, Zacatecas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Jalisco, Churubusco, Guelatao, 2 de Abril, 15 de Septiembre, Chihuahua, Tamaulipas, ISSSTE 11, Querétaro, Guanajuato, Ignacio Comonfort, Ignacio M. Altamirano, Jesús Terán, Ponciano Arriaga, Niños Héroes and 20 de Noviembre suffered severe damage such as deeply cracked foundations. , To better help deal with major disasters, the Civil Protection Committee was created.  As most of the collapsed buildings were of recent construction and public works projects, the government was seen at fault due to mismanagement and corruption in these constructions. "Mexico City earthquake" redirects here. In other cases, the first few floors of buildings were designed as parking garages, open lobbies or large shopping areas.  The Cocos Plate pushes against and slides under the North American Plate, primarily along the coasts of the states of Michoacán and Guerrero in Mexico. (The earthquake of 19-Sep-1985). The region's infrastructure was severely affected. What happened 23 years ago in Mexico is comparable to a temblor occurring along the San Andreas Fault near San Francisco leaving Bakersfield in ruins. The effects of the quake were particularly devastating because of the type of ground upon which the city sits. The buildings most damaged were from 6 to 15 stories in height. On Sept. 19, 1985, an earthquake registering 8.1 on the Richter scale struck Mexico City. On September 19, 1985 an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.1 struck Mexico City, Mexico at 7:18 a.m. , CUD and other popular movement representatives met the head of the Secretariat of Urban Development and Ecology (SEDUE) Guillermo Carrillo Arena on 27 September 1985. With Mexico City sitting on top a plateau of sand and dirt, this violent earthquake did significant damage to the city.  The Metropolitan Commission for Emergencies of the Federal District reported 2,831 buildings damaged for the entire city: 31% or 880 were completely ruined, 13% were reinhabitable with major repairs and the rest, totaling 1581, were recoverable with minor repairs. It came to be known that many of the women had to work extended hours with little or no compensation, and few, if any, of the labor laws on the books were being followed.  The last image broadcast from the studio was that of Lourdes Guerrero stating "... it's still shaking a little (sigue temblando un poquitito), but we must take it calmly. More than 10,000 people were killed, 30,000 were injured, and large parts of the city were destroyed.  People became trapped in stairwells, elevators and their apartments without any way to contact the outside world. , One of the most spectacular building collapses was that of the Conjunto Pino Suárez, which was a complex of five steel-frame buildings. | Critics argued that the lack of enforcement of such codes was indicative of corrupt practices in all levels of government. The number of bodies recovered was high during those first days as well but the numbers dramatically increased between days 17 and 31.  In many damaged buildings, just one floor had collapsed. , The military was deployed to patrol streets to prevent looting after a curfew was imposed, as well as rescue, sanitary efforts and other, with 1,836 soldiers initially sent in and another 1,500 conscripts sent later.  Prior to the event, estimates about ground movement on the lakebed were generally accepted and a number of buildings were built on these estimates. We will wait just a second so we can keep talking. “Earthquake of 1985,” by Marvin Alisky. , In this school the classes normally started at 7 o'clock in the morning, so the students were already in class. This group arose from youths who spontaneously volunteered to risk their lives crawling into collapsed buildings to look for survivors. When the buildings were built seemed to have an effect as well. Considerable damage and injuries were reported in other parts of the Umbria region. Together, these apartment complexes were a large percentage of the 30,000 units lost, with the city losing about 30% of its living space. While high as an absolute number, it compares to other earthquakes of similar strength in Asia and other parts of Latin America where death tolls have run between 66,000 and 242,000 for earthquakes of magnitude 7.8 or above. 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