N/A. Local environmental variations, such as sandy or clay soils with differing soil nutrient availability or drain-CHapter 2 Cover Crop Species and Descriptions Chuck A. Ingels, Robert L. Bugg, and Fred L. Thomas Monocultures versus Mixes, 8 Winter annual Cover Crops for Tilled Vineyards, 13 Legumes, 13 grasses, 16 forbs, 17 SANTIAGO blooms later than SERENA. Second-year growth may be modest, but coverage improves in years three and four after the initial seeding if competition is not excessive (422) and grazing management is timely. N/A, nearly as much as true clovers (294, 422). serious pest of bur medic. The burr medic cultivar CIRCLE VALLEY successfully reseeded in a Louisiana no-till cotton field for more than 10 years without special management to maintain it (103). Low, dense vegetation breaks raindrop impact while roots may penetrate 5 feet deep to hold soil in place. Southern spotted burr medic (Medicago arabica) shows promise as a winter legume that can reseed for several years from a single seed crop in Hardiness Zone 7 of the Southeast. FArmour SummerMax is a cover crop species mix, containing Tillage Radish, Fodder rape, Shirohie millet and Sorghum. These mixes can be used as a green manure incorporated into the soil or to provide winter erosion control. It depends on a farmer’s goals. Acid-tolerant rhizobial strains may help some cool-season medics, especially barrel medic, to grow on sites that otherwise would be inhospitable (422). In California orchards and vineyards where winters are rainy instead of frigid, medics mixed with other grasses and legumes provide a continuous cover that crowds out weeds. Spring -planted annual medics produced dry matter yields similar to or greater than alfalfa by July (373, 376). 4. One Indiana test reported a yield of more than 9,000 lb. Livestock graze the legume in the “medic years” when the cover crop accumulates biomass and contributes N to the soil. 3. While not usually needed for single season cover crop benefits, insecticides may be warranted in the seeding year to ensure a reseeding crop for years to come. Establishment options vary depending on climate and crop system: Killing Medics are easy to control by light tillage or herbicides. Cash crops can be no-tilled into killed medic, or the legume can be incorporated. The more prostrate species of annual medic provide better ground cover. Application Rate: 8 lb/acre (undersow), broadcast at 25 lb/acre or drill at 20 lb/acre Cover crops act as a barrier for the soil, shielding it from rain runoff and wind and improving the overall soil structure. Pest Management Under water logged conditions for which they are ill-suited, annual medics are susceptible to diseases like Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Fusarium. Growing a cover crop produces food for beneficial nematodes that play a huge role in the soil ecosystem. Be sure to select a species to fit your weather and crop rotation. Wisconsin tests at six locations showed medic produced an average of 2.2T/A when sown in the late June or early July (399). He established annual medic at 10 lb./A when his ridge-tilled corn was about knee high. Medics are more susceptible than subclover to seed production loss from closely mowing densely planted erect stalks. in the Northern Plains and in cover crop mixtures in the drier areas of California. Annual medics (Medicago spp.) Medics can produce more than 100 lb. With more rainfall, however, they can produce almost as much biomass and N as clovers. Insect pests such as clover leaf weevil (Hypera punctata Fabricius) and the alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal) preferentially attack medics over other winter legume cover crops in the Southeast, and could jeopardize seed production. N/A and 3 percent organic matter on his Judith clay loam soils. The plants stayed green until the temperature dipped to the upper teens (201). A month of summer grazing improves the economics of rotation by supplying forage for about one animal unit per acre. Johnny's offers the convenience of precombined cover crop seed mixtures for both spring and fall planting. N/A where the plants grow over winter. Yields averaged over one wet year and one dry year were about 1T dry matter and 60 lb. Annual vetches, clovers, and burr medic are included in the BIOS "Rich Mix" of cover crops. These traits are valuable in long rotations of forages and cash crops as well as in mixtures for cover cropping (Sanders et al., 2011). With timely moisture, you can get a hay cutting within nine to 10 weeks after germination, and some species will keep working to produce a second cutting. Further, the long-lived seed bank that black medic establishes may be undesirable for some cash crop rotations (383). Annual medics include 35 known species that vary widely in plant habit,maturity date and cold tolerance. Livestock graze the legume in the “medic years” when the cover crop accumulates biomass and contributes N to the soil. Southern spotted burr medic is a native M. polymorpha cultivar with more winterhardiness than most of the current burr medics, which are imported from Australia. Medics may persist after harvest, presenting an option for grazing. In studies in several states, the native medic successfully reseeded for at least two years when growth was terminated two weeks after TIBBEE bloomed. are legumes closely related to alfalfa. Reduce soil erosion. To avoid bloat, manage as you would alfalfa (201). Otherwise known as “green manure”, cover crops are plants that are selected to provide some kind of enrichment or protection to the soil. N/A when interplanted with standard and semi-dwarf barley in a Minnesota trial. Jess continues to fine-tune his system to maximize income and weed management. Approximate seeds per pack: 500 Days till maturity: 90 Perennial Full & Partial Sun Container Friendly This has a full variety of plants to help replenish your garden! site, medics have been difficult to establish by over-seeding at vegetable planting or at final cultivation of sweet corn. The medic/wheat interplant yielded 29 bushels per acre—six bushels less than the other field. This use requires livestock for maximum economic benefit. MOGUL barrel medic grew the most biomass in a barley intercrop, compared with SANTIAGO burr medic and GEORGE black medic in a four-site Minnesota trial. A third division, near and dear to permaculturists, is that between annual and perennial cover crops. In this system, established self-reseeding black medic plowed down as green manure in alternate years improved spring wheat yield by about 50 percent compared to fallow (380). See Southern Burr Medic Offers Reseeding Persistence. Winter-annual clovers and medics are key ingredients in … Native medic seed is being increased in cooperation with the USDA -Natural Resources Conservation Service’s Jamie Whitten Plant Materials Center, Coffeeville, Miss., for possible accelerated release to seed growers as a “source-identified” cover crop. Most stands are volunteer and can be encouraged by proper grazing, cultivation or fertilization. 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